lunedì 28 febbraio 2011

Il Ministero della Difesa Britannico emette la Issue 7 della DefStan 91-91

(Testo da fonte Platt’s)  NB: Il link per accedere al nuovo Standard è  in calce
“The UK's Ministry of Defence published Issue 7 of its Defence Standard 91-91 document Friday, including  major changes and clarifications related to paperwork and the traceability of  jet fuel used by airlines.
Previously, DefStan 91-91 required the Refinery  Certificate of Quality which included details of the test laboratory and  properties tested, whereas now a Certificate of Analysis and a Release Certificates would be required, the document said. The Certificate of  Analysis is be issued by independent inspectors and/or laboratories and  should be separate from the Refinery Certificate of Quality. The Release  Certificates supports any transfer of aviation fuel and includes items such as the grade of fuel and specification and the signature of releasing authority. For supply into airports, the product shall be supported by a valid test certificate that is less than 180 days old. Other changes included introducing a test for synthetic components in jet fuel and dropping one of the lubricity products (Apollo PRI-19) from the list of approved products.
Also, a test for Stadis 450 was introduced at the point of manufacture which is IP 568 or ASTM D7524.”
NB: DefStan 91-91 è lo Standard UK di qualità che definisce il Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Type, Jet A-1, Codice NATO F-35 (già DERD-2494). 
Assieme alla ASTM D-1655 forma la Check List "Aviation Fuel Quality Requirement for Jointly Operated Systems" (AFQRJOS) alla quale l'Aviazione Civile fa riferimento per il refueling al di fuori di Nord America e Paesi ex Unione Sovietica. Un jet-fuel che soddisfa la check list AFQRJOS per definizione è conforme sia alla DefStan 91-91 che alla ASTM D-1655.

giovedì 17 febbraio 2011

Qantas e Solazyme in Partnership per Biojet da Alghe

Sottoscritto il 10.02 un accordo di collaborazione tra Qantas e la californiana Solazyme Inc. mirato alla produzione in Australia di Solajet (TM), biocarburante da microalghe  già sperimentato con successo negli USA. L'iniziativa rientra nella strategia di difesa ambientale che Quantas persegue nell'area Asia-Pacifico d'intesa col governo australiano, che ruota sull'alleanza con  due bio-produttori statunitensi, Solazime Inc. ed il Gruppo Solana. Con quest'ultimo Qantas ha recentemente stretto un accordo per la progettazione di un impianto di  gassificazione dei rifiuti urbani e successiva liquefazione del biogas di sintesi in jet-fuel via FT, sul modello già varato con British Airways (vedi blog più in basso).

lunedì 14 febbraio 2011

Boeing e Airbus: Sintesi dai rispettivi Website

Boeing strives to conduct operations in compliance with environmental laws, regulations, policies and procedures, prevent pollution by conserving energy and resources, recycling, reducing waste, and continually improving own environmental management system. In addition to adopting this policy, Boeing has set aggressive and transparent performance targets to drive environmental thought and action throughout its operations. All of Boeing's major manufacturing sites are certified to the internationally recognized ISO 14001 environmental management system standard.

Climate Change Approach
Boeing believes that climate change is a serious environmental challenge that requires credible action and hence is committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from own facilities and products. To this end Boeing works with customers and other stakeholders to pioneer new technology to improve efficiencies throughout the system including the adoption of eco-friendly products and services with the aim at reducing carbon intensity of air transportation. At its major U.S. manufacturing facilities Boeing has set 25% reduction targets for the period between 2007 and 2012 to greenhouse gas emission, energy and water consumption, hazardous waste generation, and 25% increase to solid waste recycling rate. Each of these targets is being pursued actively, with achievements outscoring goals over the first three years. Eco-friendly design innovation is secured by directing more than 75% of research and development to benefit environmental performance, which will deliver at least 15% improvement in CO2 emissions and fuel efficiency to each new generation of commercial airplanes

Bio-derived Fuels
Boeing is sharing sustainable biofuel research and solutions throughout the industry, focusing on those produced from algae and other renewable resources that do not compete with food crops for land or water. Sustainable biofuels reduce greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle while offering the potential to lessen aviation's dependence on fossil fuels.

Bio-Fuel Testing
In 2008 Boeing and its industry partners conducted the first commercial flight using biofuel mixed with traditional Jet A-1. Subsequent demonstration flights used a variety of bio-derived fuels including jatropha, camelina and algae. All flights were conducted on Boeing airplanes with no modifications to the aircraft or engines. In June 2009, Boeing and an industry team released a research a key study on sustainable biofuels (*) which proved that they perform as well as conventional jetfuel. A large number of blends of up to 50%  bio-kerosene and balance fossil-fuel were tested on several commercial jet engine types. These tests demonstrated that critical quality requisites including freezing point, flash point, fuel density and viscosity may be fully met by bioblends like those trialed. In late 2009, the U.S. Navy conducted the military's first ground-based biofuels test of an F/A-18 engine. The U.S. Air Force began a series of biofuel test flights in March 2010, and on Earth Day, the Navy flew a Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet powered by biofuel. In 2011 it is planned  that biofuel will be tested in other Boeing products including the C-17 Globemaster and the F-15 Eagle.

Participation in Joint R&D Programmes
Boeing is a founding member of the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group devoted to reducing greenhouse gases emissions from commercial aviation and also participates in the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative, a broad-based industry coalition that addresses fuel alternatives in commercial, non-commercial and military aviation. Additionally Boeing serves on the board of the Algal Biomass Organization, focused on creating commercial markets for algae-based fuels and greenhouse gas abatement and takes part in the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels, an international initiative bringing together industry, investors, environmental organizations and producers of bio-derived fuels. Research is also at the core of Boeing interest, with a number of joint research programs at universities and institutions including Yale, the University of Queensland in Australia, the Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi, India's Jawaharlal Nehru University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Boeing also works with other companies including GE, Honeywell's UOP, Northrop Grumman, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce, to conduct laboratory research and engine tests with sustainable biofuels. The U.S. Air Force Research Lab is a valued collaborator in these efforts. This ongoing research, combined with flight tests have contributed to the international certification of biofuels as drop-in substitutes to petrol. ASTM, a widely recognized standardization body , will approve the use of  bio-blends  for scheduled commercial flights very soon.

Links to Boeing:

(*)Link to the Bio-SPK Evaluation report:

Alternative fuel research is a core tenet of Airbus’ initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of air transport. The company believes that alternative fuels are a must for sustainable aviation growth and offer advantages over standard oil-derived jet fuel in terms of supply, diversity and eco-efficiency.

Aviation contributes to approximately two per cent of all man-made CO2 emissions. During the past 40 years, the industry has improved its fuel efficiency and reduced its related CO2 emissions by around 70 per cent. The air transport sector as a whole has voluntarily committed to meeting ambitious environmental targets, including carbon neutral growth by 2020 and a 50 per cent net reduction of CO2 emissions in 2050, compared to 2005 figures.

Airbus is pioneering the introduction of sustainable biofuels, which will make a major impact on CO2 emissions from aviation. Biofuels’ emissions are no less than fossil fuels’, but their plant supply sources fix CO2 as they grow – offsetting what will be emitted when they are burned. Biofuels are an attractive alternative to standard kerosene because it requires neither aircraft nor engine modifications, and can be mixed with existing kerosene and used with the current-generation infrastructure. 

There are at least three types of “drop-in” alternative fuel sources that can meet the performance of non-renewable (fossil) jet fuels, including biomass treated with the Fischer-Tropsch process; hydro-processed esters and fatty acids (HEFA); and hydrotreated cellulosic fibre (HCF).

Research and test flights have shown that synthetic biofuels can replace fossil fuels on today’s aircraft without the need for modification. Airbus estimates that sustainable biofuels could supply some 30 per cent of commercial aviation as early as 2030. The biggest challenge is producing sustainable supplies in sufficient quantity, in order to provide necessary quantities of fuel at a competitive cost. Airbus directs its research on fuels from sustainable plants or biomass supplies that do not impact socially or compete with food, land and water resources.
The company continuously works with industry partners to fully explore alternative fuels’ potential value to the aviation industry. These efforts include supporting airlines to implement projects; providing decision-makers with relevant biofuel data; developing research programmes in collaboration with universities; and supporting the regulatory approval process for new biofuels

In collaboration with Shell International Petroleum and Rolls-Royce, Airbus marked a step towards the development of alternative fuel solutions with an A380 flight test in 2008, which utilised gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene. Synthesised through the Fischer-Tropsch process, its product is cleaner than the oil-derived jet fuel used with current commercial aircraft – resulting in lower sulphur emissions. The second commercial flight using GTL fuel was performed in April 2010 by a United Airlines A319. To carry out engineering, economic analysis and to move into the development of sustainable biofuels, Qatar Airways – in collaboration with Airbus – launched in 2010 the biofuel value chain to commercialise biofuels. Later that year, Airbus teamed up with Brazil’s TAM Airlines and conducted the first biofuel flight in Latin America. This experimental flight is part of a wider project to help develop a production chain for renewable biofuel, with the purpose of creating a Brazilian platform for sustainable aviation bio-kerosene.
Thanks to a recent agreement with Lufthansa, Airbus is taking a significant step forward towards sustainable aviation with the launch of the world’s first passenger biofuel flights in the first half of 2011 using a biofuel blend made from 50 per cent hydro-processed esters and fatty acids.

lunedì 7 febbraio 2011

Pubblicato sulla G.U. il Dlgs sugli ETS

Entra in vigore il prossimo 19.2 il Dlgs n. 257 del 2010 con cui viene recepita nell’ordinamento nazionale la direttiva 2008/101/CE che include nell’ETS dal 2012 le emissioni di CO2 del settore aereo, in particolare quelle dei voli in arrivo e in partenza dagli aeroporti UE. 
Approvato dal CdM in via definitiva il 22.12 scorso, il provvedimento è  visionabile sulla Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 28 del 4 febbraio o tramite link seguente:

mercoledì 2 febbraio 2011

Airbus, TAM, AirBP ed Ecodiesel insieme per produrre bio-jet in Brasile

(Da: Biofuel Digest, 02-02.2011)
The story of advanced biofuels in Brazil umped-up yesterday with the announcement that TAM Airlines in conjunction with Airbus, jatropha biofuel producer Brasil Ecodiesel and AirBP are jointly developing a bio-SPK manufacturing facility with a 80,000 ton per year capacity that is expected to come online in 2013. The studies for the project are being undertaken by the University of Yale.
The partnership (P/S) would create an even larger facility than those contemplated by agreements in place between British Airways and Solena for a 19 million gallon MSW-to-jet fuel plant in the UK and underway between Qantas and Solena to construct a similar plant in Australia.
Background: (da: Biofuel Digest, 24 Dec.2010, vedi anche post del 20.11 nella pag. che segue)
On November 22nd a major milestone was accomplished when TAM Airlines and Airbus performed the first Jatropha-based biofuel flight in Latin America, using an Airbus A320 aircraft.
“Airbus is bringing together farmers, oil-refiners and airlines to spearhead the commercialisation of sustainable biofuel production in Brazil and worldwide,” Paul Nash Airbus head of New Energies said. “As well as analysing the suitability of potential biofuels for aviation, Airbus is also supporting life-cycle and sustainability projects to ensure that any CO2 emissions-reducing solutions have a positive ‘social’ impact and do not compete with local resources including land, food or water,” he added.
The initiative -began in 2009- involved TAM acquiring sufficient jatropha-oil to conduct the A320 demonstration flight. The oil was produced and refined in Brazil, then finished in the US where it was processed into bio-kerosene by UOP LLC (a Honeywell Company) to enter a 50:50 blend with regular aviation Jet fuel A.
“The bio-kerosene market is a reality and promises significant growth potential, especially since the European Union has included aviation as an important element for global carbon emission reductions. Our participation in this pioneering project is aligned with our plans for diversifying our biofuel portfolio” Brasil Ecodiesel’s CEO José Carlos Aguilera stated.

Alitalia firma LOI con Solena per studio su Bio-Kerosene da RSU

(AGI 2.2.2011)

"L'Amministratore Delegato di Alitalia-CAI Rocco Sabelli, il Ceo di Solena Group Robert Do e l'Amministratore Unico di Solena Italia Stefano Bugliosi hanno siglato una lettera di intenti con la quale Alitalia e Solena Group si impegnano ad avviare uno studio di fattibilita' relativo alla realizzazione di un impianto capace di riconvertire i rifiuti solidi urbani (biomasse promiscue) in una quota rilevante del jet-fuel necessario agli aeromobili di Alitalia, garantendo l'abbattimento delle emissioni di gas serra e la stabilita' degli approvvigionamenti."

Nota: Solena ha già al suo attivo una partnership con British Airways con la quale è impegnata a realizzare un impianto di trattamento e conversione di rifiuti solidi urbani (MSW-Municipal Solid Waste)della città di Londra per ottenerne carburante ed energia elettrica (Vedi post del 29.11 cliccando qui sotto su "Post più vecchi"). Ancora Solena più recentemente ha siglato un Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) con Quantas per un impianto analogo da costruire in Australia. Info su Solena Group e sulla sua tecnologia proprietaria BTL(Biomass-To-Liquids) sono reperibili cliccando

martedì 1 febbraio 2011

Finnair rinvia l'introduzione di bio-Jet nei suoi voli di linea

In una intervista rilasciata ieri, la responsabile ambiente del vettore statale finlandese ha annunciato che contrariamente a quanto era previsto Finnair non inizierà ad utilizzare bio-kerosene NExBTL (Neste Oil) sui propri voli di linea già da quest'anno giudicando che esso non sia del tutto rispondente al requisito di sostenibilità della Compagnia, ma aspetterà che tecnologia di produzione e costo prodotto evolvano fino a consentire biojet da materia prima nazionale ligno-cellulosica o da alghe a condizioni competitive con il kerosene fossile.
Nonostante la smentita di Finnair è impressione di molti che la decisione della Compagnia di bandiera sia stata influenzata dai movimenti nazional-ecologisti che il Finlandia hanno presa politica notevole.
L'articolo è visionabile per intero cliccando su:

Oltre i 900$/tonn il prezzo del Jet A-1 in Mediterraneo

E' balzata al livello di ottobre 2008 la quotazione del Jet Fuel nel cargo market mediterraneo, con 905$/tonn per consegna spot fob Italia. Valore molto alto, che tradotto in prezzo bordo aeromobile ("into plane") suona prossimo a 985$/tonn (720€/tonn), significativo della preoccupazione per la transitabilità del canale di Suez attraverso il quale passa una quota non trascurabile di prodotto che dal Gofo Persico alimenta gli aeroporti europei maggiori.